Angelica gigas Root

Angelica gigas Root

Proposed For Development Version 0.1

Angelica gigas Root




The article consists of the dried roots of Angelica gigas Nakai (Family Apiaceae). It contains NLT 4.2% of caffeoylquinic acid and total coumarins calculated as the sum of chlorogenic acid, demethylsuberosin, decursin, and decursinol angelate, on the dried basis.



None known



Angelica acutiloba (Siebold & Zucc.) Kitag.

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels



Chinese: 朝鲜当归

English: Korean angelica, Korean tanggwi

Korean: 참당귀



Coumarins: Decursin, decursinol, decursinol angelate, nodakenin



• A. Botanical Characteristics

Macroscopic: Conical or narrow long conical in shape, usually branched, 15–25 cm in length and 2–5 cm in diameter. The external surface is pale yellowish brown to blackish brown with irregular longitudinal wrinkles and spot-shaped remains of fibrous roots. The crown is broad, usually with remains of stems and leaves. The texture is hard but fragile. The fractured surface has a pale brown or yellowish brown cortex, relatively sparse with numerous clefts, and the xylem is white or yellowish white. This has a slight, characteristic odor, and a slightly bitter and sweet taste.

Microscopic: Under a microscope, the transverse section reveals cork consisting of 5–6 layers of cells, cells aligned transversely, parenchymas from primary cortex to xylem aligned systemically in rectangular shape. The cortex has schizogenous intercellular space, secretory canal with a yellowish brown ingredient and bast fiber bundles are sparsely scattered. Scalariform or spiral vessel is observed. Numerous starch grains are observed in parenchyma cells.


· B. HPTLC for Articles of Botanical Origin <203>

Standard solution: 1.0 mg/mL each of USP Imperatorin RS, USP Osthole RS, and USP Isoimperatorin RS in methanol

Sample solution: 1 g of Angelica gigas Root, finely powdered, in 5 mL of methanol. Sonicate for 10 min and centrifuge or filter. Use the supernatant or filtrate.

Chromatographic system

Adsorbent: Chromatographic silica gel F254 mixture

Application volume: 10 µL each of Standard solution and Sample solution, as 8-mm bands

Relative Humidity: Condition the plate to a relative humidity of about 33% using a suitable device

Developing solvent system: Toluene, ethyl acetate, and acetic acid (90:10:1)

Developing distance: 6 cm


Samples: Standard solution and Sample solution

Apply the Samples as bands to a suitable HPTLC plate and dry in air. Develop the chromatograms in a saturated chamber (20 min with filter paper), remove the plate from the chamber, and examine under UV 365 nm light.

System suitability: To Come

Acceptance criteria: Under UV 365 nm light, the chromatogram of the Sample solution exhibits about 8 fluorescence bands in the lower half of the chromatogram. Three pale fluorescence bands apear above the broad fluorescence band near RF 0.25 corresponding in color and RF to the bands due to imperatorin, osthole, and isoimperatorin, with increasing RF in the Standard solution



Analysis: Proceed as directed in the Assay for Content of Caffeoylquinic Acid and Total Coumarins. 

Acceptance criteria: The Sample solution exhibits the most intense peak at a retention time corresponding to each Standard solution.



• Content of Caffeoylquinic Acid and Total Coumarins

Solution A: 0.1% formic acid in water

Solution B: 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile

Mobile phase: See Table 1.

Table 1


Solution A

Solution B

















Solvent: Ethyl alcohol and water (7:3)

Standard stock solution A: 1 mg/mL of USP Chlorogenic Acid RS in methanol

Standard stock solution B: 1 mg/mL of USP Demethylsuberosin RS in methanol

Standard stock solution C: 1 mg/mL of USP Decursin RS in methanol

Standard stock solution D: 1 mg/mL of USP Decursinol Angelate RS in methanol

Standard solution: Transfer 40 μL of Standard stock solution A, 40 μL of Standard stock solution B, 800 μL of Standard stock solution C, and 480 μL Standard stock solution D to a volumetric flask. Mix and add methanol to make up to 2 mL solution.

Sample solution: Accurately transfer about 1.0 g of Angelica gigas Root, finely powdered and accurately weighed, to a centrifugal tube. Add 10 mL of Solvent, and weigh. Sonicate for 45 min, cool, and compensate the weight loss with Solvent. Before injection, pass through a membrane filter of 0.45-μm pore size.

Chromatographic system

(See Chromatography <621>, System Suitability.)

Detector: UV 325 nm

Column: 4.6-mm × 25-cm; packing L1

Column temperature: 30°

Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min

Injection volume: 10 µL

System suitability

Samples: Standard solution and 

Suitability requirements

Chromatographic similarity:


Tailing factor:

Relative standard deviation:


Samples: Standard solutions A–D and Sample solution

Calculate the percentage of chlorogenic acid, demethylsuberosin, decursin, and decursinol angelate in the portion of Angelica gigas Root taken:


Result = (rU/rS) × CS × (V/W) × 100


rU   = peak area of the corresponding analyte from the Sample solution

rS   = peak area of the corresponding analyte from the Standard solution

CS  = concentration of the Standard solution (mg/mL)

   = volume of the Sample solution, mL

W   = weight of Angelica gigas Root taken to prepare the Sample solution, mg


Acceptance criteria: NLT 4.2% of caffeoylquinic acid and coumarins on the dried basis



• Elemental Impurities—Procedures <233>

Acceptance criteria

Arsenic: NMT 3.0 µg/g

Cadmium: NMT 0.3 µg/g

Lead: NMT 5.0 µg/g

Mercury: NMT 0.2 µg/g

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Pesticide Residue Analysis: Meets the requirements

• Microbial Enumeration Tests <61>: The total aerobic bacterial count does not exceed 105 cfu/g, the total combined molds and yeasts count does not exceed 103 cfu/g, and the bile-tolerant Gram-negative bacteria does not exceed 103 cfu/g.

• Tests for Specified Microorganisms <62>: Meets the requirements of the tests for absence of Salmonella species and Escherichia coli

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Test for Aflatoxins: Meets the requirements



• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisForeign Organic Matter: NMT 5.0%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisAlcohol-Soluble Extractives, Method 1NLT 55%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisWater-Soluble Extractives, Method 2: To Come

• Loss on Drying <731>

Sample: 2.0 g of Angelica gigas Root, finely powdered

Analysis: Dry the Sample  at 105º for 1 h.

Acceptance criteria: NMT 10.0%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisTotal Ash: NMT 6.0%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisAcid-Insoluble Ash: NMT 1.0%



• Packaging and Storage: Preserve in well-closed containers, protected from light and moisture, and store at room temperature.

• Labeling: The label states the Latin binomial and the part(s) of the plant contained in the article.

• USP Reference Standards <11>

USP Chlorogenic Acid RS

USP Decursin RS

USP Decursinol Angelate RS

USP Demethylsuberosin RS

USP Imperatorin RS

USP Isoimperatorin RS

USP Osthole RS

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Key Information

Posted on Feb 16, 2018