Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Powder

Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Powder

Proposed For Comment Version 0.2

Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Powder

 


 

DEFINITION

The article consists of aerial parts of Sphaeranthus indicus L. (Family: Asteraceae), reduced to powder or very fine powder. It contains NLT 0.14% of sphaeranthanolide, calculated on the dried basis.

 

POTENTIAL CONFOUNDING MATERIALS

None known

 

CONSTITUENTS OF INTEREST

Sesquiterpene glycoside: Sphaeranthanolide

Sterol glycoside: 7-hydroxyfrullanolide

 

IDENTIFICATION

• A. Botanical Characteristics

Macroscopic: Buff to brown colored, fine powder with an aromatic odor. 

Microscopic

Infloscence: Intact and fragmented bracts, corolla, stamens, seeds, and receptacles. Stone cells lignified, in groups or isolated; occasional phloem and xylem fibers.

Leaf: Upper and lower epidermis in surface view, embeded with anisocytic stomata, the cells of the upper epidermis are rectangular in shape unlike the lower epidermis which is sinuous walled; upper epidermis with trichome at place; simple and glandular trichomes; transversely cut fragment of lamina showing a layer of palisade underneath the upper epidermis; longitudinally cut fragment of spiral tracheids.

Fruit: Plenty of short, long, occasionally twin or bifurcating at the top, simple conical trichomes from the corolla and from the fruit wall, the latter being (epicarp trichomes) thick walled, blunt at apex and yellowish in color; plenty of glandular trichomes with multicellular head filled with yellowish granular contents and multicellular short stalk; transversely cut fragment of cotyledon showing layer of epidermis and underlined cells of mesophyll embedded with fixed oil globules and aleurone grains; fragment of epicarp in surface view seen from above and below, the above surface shows the epicarp attached with trichomes; fragment of mesocarp in surface view showing cells embedded with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; corolla cells in surface view showing striated cuticle; petals showing elongated cells and trichomes at margins; fragment of stamens; fragment of apical portion of stigma showing papillose head; pollen grains; fragments of spiral vessels.

B. Thin-Layer Chromatography

Standard solution A: 1 mg/mL of USP Sphaeranthanolide RS in methanol

Standard solution B: Dissolve 0.1 g of USP Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Dry Extract RS in 10 mL of methanol with sonication for 10 min. Centrifuge and use the supernatant.

Sample solution: Mix 0.5 g of Powder with 5 mL of methanol. Sonicate for 10 min, centrifuge, and use the supernatant 

Chromatographic system

(See Chromatography <621>, Thin-Layer Chromatography.)

Adsorbent: Use a suitable chromatographic material with an average particle size of 5 µm (HPTLC plates).

Application volume: 5 µL each of Standard solution AStandard solution B, and Sample solution, as 8-mm bands

Relative humidity: Condition the plate to a relative humidity of about 33% using a suitable device.

Developing solvent system: Dichloromethane and methanol (70: 9.2)

Developing distance: 7 cm

Derivatization reagent: Sulfuric acid reagent created by carefully adding 20 mL of sulfuric acid to 180 mL of ice-cooled methanol.

Analysis

Samples: Standard solution A, Standard solution B, and Sample solution

Apply the Samples as bands to a suitable HPTLC plate and dry in air. Develop the chromatograms in a saturated chamber, remove the plate from the chamber, and dry. Treat the plate with Derivatization reagent by dipping, heat for 5 min at 105°, and examine under visible light.

System suitability: Under visible light, the chromatogram of Standard solution B exhibits a dark brown band right above the origin in position and color similar to the sphaeranthanolide band in the chromatogram of Standard solution A. Six additional bands appear with increasing order of RF: a broad dark brown band near the origin, a light purple band near one half of the lower half, a purple band right above the half, a strong blue band above the purple band, a blue/purple band, and a strong reddish-brown band near the front.

Acceptance criteria: Under visible light, the chromatogram of Sample solution exhibits a band due to sphaeranthanolide corresponding in color and RF to the band in the chromatogram of Standard solution A. The following bands, with increasing RF, correspond to the similar bands in the chromatogram of Standard solution B: a broad dark brown band near the origin, a light purple band near one half of the lower half, a purple band right above the half, a strong blue band above the purple band, and a strong reddish-brown band near the front.

• C. HPLC

Analysis: Proceed as directed in the Assay for Content of Sphaeranthanolide.

Acceptance criteria: The chromatogram of the Sample solution exhibits a peak at the retention time corresponding to the peak due to sphaeranthanolide in Standard solution B.

 

ASSAY

• Content of Sphaeranthanolide

Solution A: Acetonitrile

Solution B: Water

Mobile phase: See Table 1.

 

 

Table 1

Time
(min)

Solution A
(%)

Solution B
(%)

0

5

95

20

100

0

25

100

0

27

5

95

30

5

95

 

Standard solution A: 0.01 mg/mL of USP Sphaeranthanolide RS in methanol

Standard solution B: Dissolve 0.25 g of USP Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Dry Extract RS in 20 mL of methanol by shaking for 2 h at 60°. Cool to room temperature, pass through filter paper into a 50-mL volumetric flask, and fill with methanol. Dilute with methanol to obtain a solution with a concentration of about 0.5 mg/mL. Pass the solution through a membrane filter of 0.45-µm pore size, discarding the first few mL of the filtrate.

Sample solution: Transfer about 2.50 g of Powder to a flask, add 20 mL of methanol, and shake for 2 h at 60°. Cool to room temperature, pass through filter paper into a 50-mL volumetric flask,and fill with methanol. Dilute with methanol to obtain a solution with a concentration of about 5 mg/mL. Pass the solution through a membrane filter of 0.45-μm pore size, discarding the first few mL of the filtrate.

Chromatographic system

(See Chromatography <621>, System Suitability.)

Detector: UV 206 nm

Column: 4.6-mm × 25-cm; 5-µm packing L1 (similar to Zorbax XDB C18)

Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min

Injection volume: 10 µL

System suitability

Samples: Standard solution A and Standard solution B

Suitability requirements

Chromatogram similarity: The chromatogram of Standard solution B is similar to the reference chromatogram provided with the lot of USP Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Dry Extract RS being used.

Tailing factor: NMT 2.0 for the sphaeranthanolide peak, Standard solution A

Relative standard deviation: NMT 2.0%, Standard solution A

Analysis

Samples: Standard solution A, Standard solution B, and Sample solution

Calculate the percentage of sphaeranthanolide in the portion of Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Powder taken:

 

Result = (rU/rS) × CS × (V/W) × 100

 

rU   = peak area for sphaeranthanolide from the Sample solution

rS   = peak area for sphaeranthanolide from Standard solution A

CS  = concentration of USP Sphaeranthanolide RS in Standard solution A (mg/mL)

V    = volume of the Sample solution (mL)

W   = weight of Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Powder taken to prepare the Sample solution (mg)

Acceptance criteria: NLT 0.14% on the dried basis

 

CONTAMINANTS

• Elemental Impurities—Procedures <233>

Acceptance criteria

Arsenic: NMT 2.0 µg/g

Cadmium: NMT 0.5 µg/g

Lead: NMT 5 µg/g

Mercury: NMT 0.2 µg/g

• Articles of Botanical Origin, General Method for Pesticide Residues Analysis <561>: Meets the requirements

• Microbial Enumeration Tests <61>: The total aerobic bacterial count does not exceed 105 cfu/g, the total combined molds and yeasts count does not exceed 103 cfu/g, and the bile-tolerant Gram-negative bacteria does not exceed 103 cfu/g.

• Tests for Specified Microorganisms <62>: Meets the requirements of the tests for the absence of Salmonella species and Escherichia coli

 

SPECIFIC TESTS

• Articles of Botanical Origin, Foreign Organic Matter <561>: NMT 2.0%

• Loss on Drying <731>

Sample: 1 g of Powder

Analysis: Dry the Sample at 105° for 2 h.

Acceptance criteria: NMT 15%

• Articles of Botanical Origin, Total Ash <561>: NMT 20%

• Articles of Botanical Origin, Acid-Insoluble Ash <561>: NMT 10%

 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

• Packaging and Storage: Preserve in well-closed containers, protected from light and moisture, and store at room temperature.

• Labeling: The label states the Latin binomial and the part(s) of the plant contained in the article.

• USP Reference Standards <11>

USP Sphaeranthanolide RS

USP Sphaeranthus indicus Aerial Parts Dry Extract RS

 
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Proposed For Development Version 0.1