Citrus reticulata Pericarp

Citrus reticulata Peel

Proposed For Development Version 0.1

Citrus reticulata Pericarp

 


 

DEFINITION

The article consists of the dried ripe pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Family Rutaceae) collected in autumn or winter. It contains NLT 5.0% of the total dihydroflavone glycosides, calculated as the sum of narirutin (C27H32O14), hesperidin (C28H34O15), and didymin (C28H34O14), on the anhydrous basis; and NLT 0.1% of the total polymethoxylated flavones, calculated as the sum of nobiletin (C21H22O8), 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (C22H24O9), and tangeretin (C20H20O7), on the anhydrous basis.

 

SYNONYMS

Citrus chrysocarpa Lush

Citrus crenatifolia Lush

Citrus daoxianensis S. W. He & G. F. Liu

Citrus deliciosa Ten

Citrus depressa Hayata

Citrus erythrosa Yu. Tanaka

Citrus himekitsu Yu. Tanaka

Citrus otachihana Yu. Tanaka

Citrus papillaris Blanco

Citrus vangasay Bojer

 

POTENTIAL CONFOUNDING MATERIALS

Dried ripe fruit of Citrus junos Siebold et Yu Tanaka (C. wilsoni Tanaka)

Dried unripe exocarp of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (C. grandis (L.) Osbeck)

 

SELECTED COMMON NAMES

Chinese: 陈皮, 陳皮 (Chen Pi)

English: Dried tangerine peel

French: écorce de mandarine

Japanese: ちんぴ

Spanish: Cáscara de mandarina

 

CONSTITUENTS OF INTEREST

Dihydroflavone glycoside: Narirutin (C27H32O14), hesperidin (C28H34O15), and didymin (C28H34O14)

Polymethoxylated flavone: Nobiletin (C21H22O8), 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (C22H24O9), and tangeretin (C20H20O7)

 

IDENTIFICATION

• A. Botanical Characteristics

Macroscopic: Usually in several lobes connected at the end, or in irregular slices with a thickness of 1–4 mm. External surface orange-red or reddish-brown with fine wrinkles and sunken dotted oil cavity; interior surface pale yellowish-white, rough, with yellowish-white or yellowish-brown vein-like vascular bundles. Texture hard and fragile.

Microscopic

Transverse section: Epidermal cells subsquare, covered with cuticle, sometimes stomata visible. Parenchymatous cells with thickened walls containing calcium oxalate prisms and hesperidin crystals, sometimes vessels visible. Inner cells subroud, loosely arranged with uneven thickened walls. Oil cavities consisting of 1–2 layers of cells, ovate or elliptical, arranged irregularly and mainly scattered at the outer side of mesocarp.

• B. HPTLC

(See HPTLC Procedure for Identification of Articles of Botanical Origin <203>.)

Standard solution A: 1.0 mg/mL of USP Hesperidin RS in methanol Sonicate to dissolve.

Standard solution B: 50 mg/mL of USP Citrus reticulata Pericarp Dry Extract RS in methanol. Sonicate for 20 min, centrifuge, and use the supernatant.

Sample solution: 500 mg of Citrus reticulata Pericarp, finely powdered, in 5 mL of methanol. Sonicate for 20 min, centrifuge, and use the supernatant.

Chromatographic system

Adsorbent: Chromatographic silica gel mixture with an average particle size of about 5 µm

Application volume: Standard solution A  10 µL; Standar solution B and Sample solution, 5 µL for each, as 10-mm bands

Relative humidity: Condition the plate to a relative humidity of about 33% using a suitable device.

Developing solvent system: Ethyl acetate, formic acid, and water (100 : 15 : 13)

Developing distance: 8 cm

Derivatization reagent A: 10 mg/mL of 2-aminoethyl diphenylboriate in methanol

Derivatization reagent B: 50 mg/mL of polyethylene glycol 4000 in alcohol

Analysis

Samples: Standard solution A, Standard solution B, and Sample solution

Apply the Samples as bands and dry in air. Develop in a saturated chamber, remove the plate from the chamber, and dry the plate at 100° for 3 min. Treat the plate with Derivatization reagent A and dry for 5 min with a stream of cool air. Immediately, treat the plate with Derivatization reagent B, dry for 5 min with a stream of cool air, and examine under UV light at 366 nm.

System suitability: Standard solution A exhibits a dark green band due to hesperidin in the middle-third section. Standard solution B exhibits a band corresponding in RF and color to the band due to hesperidin in Standard solution A, a yellow-green band below hesperidin, a blue band below the yellow-green band, another blue band above hesperidin, and a faint band between hesperidin and the blue band above hesperidin. In the upper-third section, Standard solution B exhibits a bright blue band due to the co-elution of nobiletin with other components, a green band above the bright blue band.

Acceptance criteria: The Sample solution exhibits a dark green band corresponding in RF and color to the band due to hesperidin in Standard solution A and Standard solution B, a yellow-green band below hesperidin, a blue band below the yellow-green band, another blue band above hesperidin, and a faint band between hesperidin and the blue band above hesperidin corresponding to the same bands in Standard solution B. There is no another dark green band due to naringin above hesperidin band (distinction from the Citrus wilsonii Fruit, and Citrus maxima Pericarp, these two plants do not contain hesperidin while contain naringin). In the upper-third section, the Sample solution exhibits a bright blue band and a green band above the bright blue band corresponding in RF and color to the same bands in Standard solution B. In the lower-third section, the Sample solution exhibits a couple of yellow-green bands close to the starting position and a couple of faint bands above the yellow-green bands corresponding in RF and color to the same bands in Standard solution B.

• C. HPLC

Analysis: Proceed as directed in the Assay for Content of Dihydroflavone Glycosides and Polymethoxylated Flavones.

Acceptance criteria: The Sample solution exhibits the most intense peak at the retention time corresponding to hesperidin in Standard solution A; and peaks due to narirutin, didymin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeretin at retention times corresponding to the same constituents in Standard solution B. The content ratios of narirutin and didymin relative to hesperidin are within the ranges listed in Table 2.

 

ASSAY

• Content of Dihydroflavone Glycosides and Polymethoxylated Favones

Solution A: 0.1% Formic acid in water

Solution B: Acetonitrile

Mobile phase: See Table 1.

 

Table 1

Time

(min)

Solution A

 (%)

Solution B

(%)

Detection Wavelength (nm)

0–8

85–81

15–19

283

8–10

81–81

19–19

283

10–17

81–60

19–40

283

17–28

60–56

40–44

330

 

Standard solution A: 0.40 mg/mL of USP Hesperidin RS and 0.05 mg/mL of USP Nobiletin RS in methanol

Standard solution B: 5 mg/mL of USP Citrus reticulata Pericarp Dry Extract RS in methanol. Sonicate for 15 min, centrifuge, and pass through a membrane filter of 0.22-μm pore size.

Sample solution: Accurately transfer about 100 mg of Citrus reticulata Pericarp, finely powdered, to a suitable stoppered conical flask and accurately add 10.0 mL of methanol. Weigh the filled flask with a precision of ± 0.1 mg, stopper, and sonicate for 30 min. After cooling to room temperature adjust to the initial weight by adding methanol. Pass through a membrane filer of 0.22-μm pore size and discard the first portion of the filtrate.

Chromatographic system

(See Chromatography <621>, System Suitability.)

Mode: LC

Detector: UV 283 nm (1–17 min) and 330 nm (17–28 min)

Column: 4.6-mm × 5-cm; 1.8-μm, packing L1 (similar to Agilent Zorbax SB C18)

Column temperature: 25°

Flow rate: 0.7 mL/min

Injection volume: 2 µL

System suitability

Samples: Standard solution A and Standard solution B

Suitability requirements

Chromatogram similarity: The chromatogram of Standard solution B is similar to the reference chromatogram provided with the lot of USP Citrus reticulata Pericarp Dry Extract RS being used.

Resolution: NLT 1.5 between the peak of hesperidin and the small peak before it, Standard solution B

Tailing factor: NMT 1.5 for the hesperidin and nobiletin peaks, Standard solution A

Relative standard deviation: NMT 2.0% for the hesperidin and nobiletin peaks, Standard solution A

Analysis

Samples: Standard solution A, Standard solution B, and Sample solution

Procedure 1 for total dihydroflavone glycosides

Using the chromatograms of Standard solution A and Standard solution B, and the reference chromatogram provided with the lot of USP Citrus reticulata Pericarp Dry Extract RS being used, identify the retention times of the peaks of narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin in the Sample solution. [Note—See Table 2 for relative retention times.]

 

Table 2

Analyte

Approximate Relative
Retention Time

Conversion Factor

Content Ratio Relative to Hesperidin

Narirutin

0.79

1.17

0.1–0.3

Hesperidin

1.00

1.00

1.0

Didymin

1.64

1.00

0.02–0.06

 

Separately calculate the percentages of narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin in the portion of Citrus reticulata Pericarp taken:

 

Result = (rU/rS) × CS × (V/W) × F × 100

 

rU   = peak area of the relevant analyte from the Sample solution

rS   = peak area of hesperidin from Standard solution A

CS  = concentration of USP Hesperidin RS in Standard solution A (mg/mL)

   = volume of the Sample solution (mL)

W   = weight of Citrus reticulata Pericarp taken to prepare the Sample solution (mg)

F    = conversion factor for the analyte (see Table 2)

 

Calculate the content of total dihydroflavone glycosides as the sum of the percentages of narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin.

 

Procedure 2 for total polymethoxylated flavones

Using the chromatograms of Standard solution A and Standard solution B, and the reference chromatogram provided with the lot of USP Citruas reticulata Pericarp Dry Extract RS being used, identify the retention times of the peaks of nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeretin in the Sample solution. [Note—See Table 3 for relative retention times.]

 

Table 3

Analyte

Approximate Relative
Retention Time

Conversion Factor

Nobiletin

1.00

1.00

3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone

1.06

1.32

Tangeretin

1.12

0.88

 

Separately calculate the percentages of nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'- heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeretin in the portion of Citrus reticulata Pericarp taken:

 

Result = (rU/rS) × CS × (V/W) × F × 100

 

rU   = peak area of the relevant analyte from the Sample solution

rS   = peak area of nobiletin from Standard solution A

C = concentration of USP Nobiletin RS in Standard solution A (mg/mL)

V     = volume of the Sample solution (mL)

W    = weight of Citrus reticulata Pericarp taken to prepare the Sample solution (mg)

F     = conversion factor for the analyte (see Table 3)

 

Calculate the content of total polymethoxylated flavones as the sum of the percentages of nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and tangeretin.

Acceptance criteria

Total dihydroflavone glycosides: NLT 5.0% on the anhydrous basis

Total polymethoxylated flavones: NLT 0.1% on the anhydrous basis

 

CONTAMINANTS

• Articles Botanical Origin <561>, Limits of Elemental Impurities: Meets the requirements

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Pesticide Residue Analysis: Meets the requirements

• Microbial Enumeration Tests <61>: The total aerobic bacterial count does not exceed 105 cfu/g, the total combined molds and yeasts count does not exceed 103 cfu/g, and the bile-tolerant Gram-negative bacteria does not exceed 103 cfu/g.

• Tests for Specified Microorganisms <62>: Meets the requirements of the tests for absence of Salmonella species and Escherichia coli

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Test for Aflatoxins: Meets the requirements

 

SPECIFIC TESTS

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisForeign Organic Matter: NMT 2%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisAlcohol-Soluble Extractives, Method 1: NLT 15.0%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisWater-Soluble Extractives, Method 2: NLT 30.0%

• Water Determination <921>, Method II: NMT 12.0%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisTotal Ash: NMT 6.0%

• Articles of Botanical Origin <561>, Methods of AnalysisAcid-Insoluble Ash: NMT 1.0%

 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

• Packaging and Storage: Preserve in well-closed containers, protected from light and moisture, and store at controlled room temperature.

• Labeling: The label states the Latin binomial and the part(s) of the plant contained in the article.

• USP Reference Standards <11>

USP Citrus reticulata Pericarp Dry Extract RS

USP Hesperidin RS

USP Nobiletin RS

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Proposed For Comment Version 0.2